The first rebellion movement by enslaved Black people occurred on the Nueva Isabela plantation in the Dominican Republic. Believed to be started by Maria Olofa and Gonzalo Mandinga, the 1522 Slave Rebellion took place on the western part of the island of Hispaniola on the plantation owned by Governor Diego Colón. This rebellion marked the beginning of a long legacy of resistance to oppression championed by Black enslaved people in the colonial period.
- Gates, Henry. Jr., 2012. “Who Was the First African American?” The Root.
- Gerhard, P. 1978. “A Black Conquistador in Mexico,” The Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 58, No. 3, pp. 451-459